PCOS-polycystic ovary syndrome:
PCOS-polycystic ovary syndrome is a very common disorder. It is characterize by irregular periods, increase male hormone levels, and often polycystic ovarian changes in the ovaries. It's the most common endocrine disorder of women of reproductive age. It affects about 5 to 20 percent of women worldwide. It's a very important health problem. It is not only the leading cause of ovulatory infertility but it's associate with an increase risk for pre-diabetes and type 2 diabetes. Also Is it harder to get pregnant with PCOS.
Signs and symptoms of Polycystic ovaries and pregnancy :
- The signs that a person has polycystic ovarian syndrome. are irregular periods. Usually, periods that are frequently more than 40 days or six to eight periods per year. Occasionally women can have more frequent bleeding such as bleeding every two weeks. It is known as dysfunctional uterine bleeding.
- Another very common symptom of polycystic ovarian syndrome. is increase hair growth in a male pattern such as in the beard area, upper lip, back, and chest
- Occasionally women with polycystic ovarian syndrome. can have hair thinning.
- Sometimes severe acne can relates to polycystic ovarian syndrome.
The risk factors with PCOS:
- Polycystic ovarian syndrome. is also the leading cause of ovulatory infertility and PCOS chances of getting pregnant naturally.
- Very common problem in women with polycystic ovarian syndrome. is weight management issues.
- PCOS is a very important cause of type 2 diabetes in young women increasing the risk by about four-fold.
- PCOS is link with an increase risk for type 2 diabetes because it is a cause of insulin resistance. Insulin resistance is when the body is not sensitive to the normal circulating amounts of insulin to regulate glucose uptake. Therefore more insulin has made by the pancreas. So higher levels of insulin are circulating and if the pancreas is unable to keep up with the demands then the insulin is no longer adequate to maintain the glucose uptake. The glucose levels rise in the blood to progress to type 2 diabetes.
- PCOS also has an increased risk for heart diseases such as heart attacks and strokes.
- Prolonged irregular menstrual cycles are a sign of an underlying endocrine disorder. The most common reason for irregular menstrual cycles is PCOS. But there can be other causes of irregular menstrual cycles such as some women having a decrease in the secretion of the hormones that regulate the reproductive system by the pituitary gland and hypothalamus due to changes in weight stress exercise. That form of irregular periods is call “hypothalamic amenorrhea”. It is a common condition but much less common than polycystic ovarian syndrome.
- Irregular periods can also cause by damage in ovaries. It is known as premature ovarian insufficiency and that disorder is less common than PCOS.
Does PCOS affect fertility?
Yes, Women with PCOS frequently need treatment to become pregnant.
- Women with PCOS frequently need treatment to become pregnant. polycystic ovarian syndrome is treated by the symptoms a woman has. Treatments are totally symptom-focused.
- Some medications are use that block male hormones and high doses called Spironolactone or Aldactone.
- For infertility, there are oral medications such as clomiphene, citrate, or letrozole use to induce ovulation.
- If these medications are ineffective then reproductive Technologies such as in vitro fertilization are use .
- The metabolic issues of polycystic ovarian syndrome. are often treats with metformin. This is a diabetes drug. It can improve the body's sensitivity to insulin In women with PCOS it can restore regular cycles, and reduce pre-diabetes and progression to type 2 diabetes.
- Weight management medications are effective in women with polycystic ovarian syndrome.
Mount Sinai is one of the leading centers for research on PCOS in particular research investigating the genetic causes of PCOS. There's been tremendous success in the past 10 years in identifying Gene regions that lead to PCOS, what are their functions, and their pathways. They also identify targets for treatment and different ways of Polycystic ovaries and getting pregnant quickly. They also work on how those pathways blocked and leading to treatments and a cure for PCOS. So early treatment can also starts to really prevent the serious outcomes of Early pregnanacy and PCOS.