What is Ibuprofen?
Ibuprofen is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug. It works as an analgesic and anesthetic. So it is good for mild to moderate pain, fever, and rheumatic diseases. Because ibuprofen decreases inflammation, pain, and fever by inhibiting cyclooxygenase activity and prostaglandin synthesis.
What is the Mechanism of action of ibuprofen?
Ibuprofen is a member of the class of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. So, those are mainly use to treat inflammation for pain relief and to reduce fever. Whenever there is inflammation, membrane phospholipids are taken up and convert to arachidonic acid by an enzyme called phospholipids arachidonic acid. It is then changing into prostaglandins and proster cyclins by the enzymes cycloxigenous I and cycloexygenase II cox-1.
It is a constitutive enzyme which means it is always active by contrast cox-2 is an inducible enzyme. In other words, it should get activate to elicit its effects. Once released these substances cause vasodilation and increase blood flow to the affected area. They also attract immune cells to the site especially neutrophils, macrophages, and lymphocytes, and further aggravate the immune response. They also act on the hypothalamus to set the temperature set point at a higher degree causing fever.
Finally, they act on the non-nociceptive neurons and lower their threshold for painful stimuli which induces pain. In addition, prostaglandins have other functions as well these include the secretion of protective mucus in the gastric mucosa, enhanced uterine contractions, and reduced gastric acid secretion.
The main mechanism of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs is to inhibit either cox-1 or cox-2 or both and reduce the synthesis of prostaglandins and proster cyclins. Ibuprofen inhibits both cox-1 and cox-2 enzymes. And causing a reduction in prostaglandin synthesis.
Which conditions may be treated with ibuprofen?
Ibuprofen is commonly use in the treatment of chronic pain cause by Osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, and gout. Therefore, it is also given to relieve mild to moderate pain in situations like muscle sprain, joint pain, pain associate with migraine, and dental pain. In addition, it is indicate to leave post-operative pain preferably in combination with other analgesics. dysmenorrhea or painful menstruation is another instant where ibuprofen is indicate. it is also use to relieve fever in adults and children.
Finally, ibuprofen is prescribe for the closure of patent ductus arteriosis in premature infants.
What is the best way to take ibuprofen?
Ibuprofen is an over-the-counter medication in most countries. So, most of the time it is use per orally. Oral formulations are available as capsules and chewable or non-chewable tablets. Therefore, they should use it with food for maximum absorption. Other preparations include oral suspension, intravenous preparations, and topical cream. The intravenous root is prefer when it is difficult to administer the drug via oral root.
Who should not take ibuprofen?
It shouldn't be administered to:
- Children under three months
- Patients with allergy to non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs
- Peptic ulcer
- Coagulation defects
- Hemorrhage surgery with risk of major blood loss
- Renal or Hepatic impairment
- Heart failure
- Severe malnutrition
- Uncorrected dehydration or hypovolemia
- Severe infection
Can asthma patients take ibuprofen?
It should be administer with caution to elderly or asthmatic patients.
What drugs should not be taken with ibuprofen?
Ibuprofen shouldn't be combine with:
- Methotrexate anticoagulants
- Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs
It should be monitor when they are combination with diuretics and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and drink plenty of fluids to avoid renal failure it also take soon after meals or with food.
What is the maximum dose of ibuprofen?
It is available as 200 and 400 milligrams enteric-coated tablets and 100 milligrams per 5 milliliters oral suspension. So, the usual dose for pain and fever for a child over three months is 30 milligrams per kilogram per day in three divided doses. And for adults is one thousand two hundred to one thousand eight hundred milligrams per day in three to four divided doses.
In the postoperative period ibuprofen should give on a regular basis every eight hours rather than as need. And for rheumatoid arthritis for a child up to 40 milligrams per kilogram per day maximum and for adults up to 3200 milligrams per day maximum.
What are the side effects of ibuprofen?
Common adverse effects of ibuprofen include:
- Allergic reactions
- Epigastria pain
- Peptic ulcer
- Renal impairment
- Gastrointestinal bleeding
- Hypersensitivity reactions
- Heart failure
- Less frequently thrombocytopenia
- Blurred vision